Annex A - Group Research Proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE

INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE

Names: Hans Seet, Tay Yang Ying, Abdul Rahim Nainish


Class: S2-03
Group Reference: G
A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[X] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacterial effect of chrysanthemum

[✓] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography

[X] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals

[X] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene 

[X] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  


  1. Type & Category

Type of research: 2

Category  –  19

Sub-category – H


Relevance to World:
It is to verify if the speed of sound is 340 m / s by using wave speed to find the distance.



C.    Write down your research title:

Measuring the speed of sound in air using smartphone applications

D.   (a) Aim / question being addressed 


Finding the speed of sound using smartphones

(b) Independent variable
  • various frequencies from 500 to 2000 Hz as generated by (app)

(c) Dependent variable
  • speed of sound (m/sec)

(d) Controlled variables
  • Type of smartphone (Iphone)
  • Length and Diameter of plastic tube
  • volume of water in the 5 Gallon Water Carboy
  • distance between top of tube and phone
  • temperature of water                               

(e) Hypothesis
:

I hypothesise that the speed of sound is 340 m / s.

E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

(a) Equipment list:
 
-1X Smartphone (with “Audio Tone Generator Lite”(apple) or “Signal Generator”(Android))
-1X 1 metre plastic tube
-1X Packet of rubber bands (Around 15-20 rubber bands)
-1X 1 meter ruler
-1X 5 Gallon Water Carboy (filled with water)

(b) Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection

1) Firstly, pour 5 gallons of water in the 5 Gallon Water Carboy

2) Then, insert the plastic tube in the 5 Gallon Water Carboy

3) After that, hold the smartphone above and near the plastic tube. Launch the signal frequency application in your smartphone.

4) Next we hold the plastic tube and move it upwards and downwards while the app emits a frequency of 500Hz.

5) Record how much has the plastic tube move from the point where you hear the sound at its loudest.

6) When we are able to hear a high-pitched sound, we mark out the point with a rubber band on the plastic tube. When you hear a high-pitched sound for each frequency, the point is marked with a rubber band.

7) Measure the length in between the two rubber bands (Data is recorded in the table- look below for details)

8) Repeat Step 5-7 but with a frequency of 750Hz. Except, measure both the second highest pitch sound and the first highest pitch sound and record the distance between the two rubber bands. (Data is recorded in the table- look below for details)

9) Repeat Step 5-7 but with a frequency of 1000Hz. Except, measure both the second highest pitch sound and the first highest pitch sound and record the distance between the two rubber bands. (Data is recorded in the table- look below for details)

10) Repeat Step 5-7 again but with a frequency of 1500Hz. Except, measure both the second highest pitch sound and the first highest pitch sound and record the distance between the two rubber bands. (Data is recorded in the table- look below for details)

11)  Repeat Step 5-7 but with a frequency of 2000Hz. Except, measure both the second highest pitch sound and the first highest pitch sound and record the distance between the two rubber bands. (Data is recorded in the table- look below for details)

12)  Repeat Step 5-7 but with a frequency of 2500Hz. Except, measure both the second highest pitch sound and the first highest pitch sound and record the distance between the two rubber bands. (Data is recorded in the table- look below for details)

14) Calculate the speed of the sound with the formula (Data is recorded in the table- look below for details) and take the average speed from the 6 frequencies, 500Hz, 750Hz, 1000Hz, 1500Hz, 2000Hz and 2500Hz

11) If the speed of sound we came up with is close to 340.29 m / s, the experiment is accurate. If not,  try the experiment again to find the average answer nearest to 340.29 m / s.


* Speed of sound= Frequency x Wavelength.
* Wavelength = (Distance(in metres) between two rubber bands x 2)

The formulae (formulas):   c = λ × f        λ = c / f = c × λ        f = c / λ

Physical value
Symbol
Unit
Formula
Frequency
f
Hz = 1/s
f = c / λ
Wavelength
λ
m
λ = c / f
Speed of sound
c
m/s
c = λ × f

The following picture is an example of the set-up.






(c) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

Risk
Assessment
Management
The smartphone may drop and its glass screen may shatter, causing it to cut your finger.
Low
Always have a layer of tempered glass on the screen and have a spare smartphone.
We might drop the carboy container, causing it to hurt our foot.

Medium
Pour water in the water carboy only when starting the experiment to lighten the weight of it.
We might spill some water out from the water carboy and students may slip and fall.
Medium
Be careful with the water and be sure to not pass it around too much.
When holding the metre ruler, we might hit someone if we turn around too quick.
Medium
Return the metre ruler immediately to the lab personnel after using it.





(d) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses
As our experiment is more of a trial and error, we decided to come out with a table questioning the following questions through our results.
  1. Was our hypothesis correct (If speed of sound is 340 m/s)?
  2. What is the average wavelength after 3 tries of each frequency?
  3. What is the speed of sound after conducting our experiment?



Draft Table:


No.
Frequency(f) (hz)
1st attempt Wavelength(λ) (m)
2nd attempt Wavelength(λ) (m)
3rd attempt Wavelength(λ) (m)
Average Wavelength(λ) (m)
Speed of sound (m/s)
1






2






3







F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.


Websites





Books

  • Hewitt, P. (2006). Conceptual physics (10th ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: Benjamin Cummings.



Journal

  • Pejuan, A., Bohigas, X., Jaén, X., & Periago, C. (2011). Misconceptions About Sound Among Engineering Students. Journal of Science Education and Technology J Sci Educ Technol, 669-685.

  • Yavuz, A. (2015). Measuring the speed of sound in air using smartphone applications. Physics Education Phys. Educ., 281-284.

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